The moose is the largest of all deer species, standing about five to six and a half feet tall. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants; grasses, young trees and shrubs, cover from predators, and protection from extremely hot or cold weather. Moose travel or migrate among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements. Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, a dense, heat-retaining coat, and a low surface volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by accessing shade or cooling wind, or by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are often found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds. When heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also, moose cows may not calve without adequate summer weight gain. Moose require access to both young forest for browsing and mature forest for shelter and cover. Forest disturbed by fire and logging promotes the growth of fodder for moose. Moose also require access to mineral licks, safe places for calving and aquatic feeding sites so they do move from season to season. The autumn season of 2003 was quite mild across northern Canada and on November 15 as the moose started their migration trek from Northern Quebec to the Labrador Sea it stalled car and truck traffic. Moose had to use the highways because the ground was not frozen due to unusually warm weather.
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